文献出处 :Crick D. The 7ps service marketing strategy of tourism enterprise [J]. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 2015, 33(5): 705-715.
The 7ps service marketing strategy of tourism enterprises
Tourism development as a pattern of service industry, service marketing is a new field of modern marketing, 7ps is the core of service marketing mix system.7ps service marketing concept can help tourism enterprises to understand the visitors, keep tourists, provide a better service. But most of the tourism enterprises are still exposed don't know 7ps service marketing strategy, there is no analysis of tourism consumers demand characteristics and differences, can't meet the demand of consumers, such as the service level is low. And 7ps concept can be applied to the product strategy, price strategy, channel strategy; personnel, tangible demonstration, service process strategy and physical display, etc. Tourism enterprises only do a good job in service marketing innovation and advancing with The Times, to win in competition.
Keywords: 7ps; Marketing mix; Tourism enterprises
As the third industry, tourism is a form of modern service industry; tourism can promote the development of local economy. Entering the 21st century, tourism received extensive attention of all countries in the world and we will vigorously support. Even if the service has quite developed European and American countries, however, are still exposed some aspects of the service level is low. The development of modern tourism enterprises, to customer satisfaction and loyalty as the core, with an emphasis on customer service, tourism competition is service competition, service as the window of tourism enterprises, can through the tourism enterprise service marketing research, promote the service level of tourism enterprises.7ps the service marketing theory to the development of modern tourism enterprise service plays a guiding role and realistic significance. With the development of normalization, network, intelligence, based on the new development trend of modern tourism enterprise content, 7ps service marketing contains development, also gives a new connotation, 7ps every aspect adds new content. This paper accordingly puts forward in the new environment, based on the service marketing strategy of "7ps" new development of the
tourism enterprises in the aspect of service marketing.
2 7ps service marketing overview
In the 1970 s, the development of service industry is very rapid, service marketing theory is based on the traditional marketing theory of 4ps, in 1981 by the cloth, and three more than Turner "P" service development. Service marketing combination of seven elements, namely, 7ps: products (Product), Price (Price), channel (Place) (People), Promotion (Promotion), personnel, service Process (Process), tangible demonstration (Physical Evidence), thus forming the 7ps service marketing combination, make with 7ps as the core of service marketing combination system.7ps combination is vital to the success of service enterprises. Personnel, service process and physical features three elements can reflect the characteristics of the enterprise service marketing mix. In today's world, with 7ps service marketing concept as the core of customer satisfaction competitive strategy proved to be more and more suitable for today's increasingly competitive business environment. With the development of Internet technology, the 7ps injected new ideas, service marketing theory of service marketing based on the theory of the 7ps new requirements are put forward. Increased marketing, marketing, online marketing, such as marketing strategy, combined with more experiential service, customized service, online service, etc. The combination of services marketing and tourism enterprises, must cause a major reform of the tourism enterprises 3 Tourist enterprise service marketing present situation
3.1 Travel service products lack of innovation
Tourism enterprises to provide the service difference is small, lack of innovation, not form the core of competitive advantage in service, many tourism enterprises have not done to provide customers with personalized have obvious differences in characteristic of personalization service. Limited service marketing, service marketing is more reflected in the field of high-end, the VIP customer service, and according to the general public service marketing concept and attitude. As a result of the traditional marketing concept has a profound effect on enterprise still, their understanding of service marketing still stay on the surface, not the systematic regulations on the service and overall management. On the connotation of the tourism culture is not deep, grade is not high, the service marketing connotation understanding insufficiency, tourism service marketing consciousness, service management level is low, the unclear understanding of service features, service quality control is lax, serious short-term consciousness and behavior. In the
process of implementing service marketing, because many enterprises on the fuzzy characteristics of services, understanding is not enough, lead to poor service effect. Some problems in the tourism scenic spots in the service, impact on the tourism image.
3.2 Less attention to the tourists and staff needs
Tourism services to interact with visitors less of each scenic spots to provide services in there are very few tourists participatory projects, most of the scenic spots or purpose of tourism projects, almost no vacationing industry type, business type, spa tourism projects, tourists in the tourist attractions, time is short, not impressive, many tourism enterprises only part of the pre-sale service and on service, without a good after-sales service system. At the same time, tourism enterprises are not fully understand and pay attention to service personnel's mood and feelings, service personnel's stability is poor, the tourism enterprises lack of sense of loyalty, so it's easy to make the service personnel brought resentment of tourism enterprises to work, will seriously affect the quality of service, so that companies cannot achieve satisfaction of tourists, tourists to the discontent of the enterprise, and eventually lead to the image of the enterprise. Due to lack the necessary training service personnel, the enterprise service is not standard, the quality level is not high, thus unable to provide satisfactory services for tourists, keep visitors.
3.3 Single tourist service channel and promotion way
Many tourism enterprises in the process of operation, manual labor is more, the lack of technology, the use of new technology. Travel agency still stays on the use of telephone, little use of the Internet into daily business work. Not fully online through the network platform, the use of social networking tools. For some travel agency's website, the survey found online platform service is not perfect, the main way of telephone or personal to the travel agency consulting, online services should serve to tourists and visitors experience as the center, optimize the website backstage. Service personnel online help tourists access to information and complete the transaction smoothly, in order to improve the success rate of web traffic and booking. Therefore, tourism services, by means of new social networking tools can implement different quality service. In terms of promotion, use holiday sales promotion is frequently used way, not taking targeted, differentiated promotion methods, service marketing is quantification stage of development, the pursuit of the scale of development, attaches great importance to the publicity, has not yet entered the stage of development of service.
4 Tourism enterprises 7ps service marketing strategy
4.1 Tourism product strategy of the enterprise
On the application of tourism product strategy needs to accord with the needs of different visitors. Product is the brand of the trend of future development, so should be based on their own products, be your own brand, highlight the characteristics of tourism products brand, attract visitors attention and purchase, eventually meet brand loyalty. Tourism products including core product, tangible products and additional products, three levels. At this level additional product, tourism enterprises can provide tourists with comprehensive, personalized and diversified travel service. For example: in terms of tourism information service, can through the one-on-one online information service; Tourism enterprises can increase some interactive, visitors can participate in the tourism project, highlight the personalized, customized services; At the same time, tourism products need to address the special needs of road trips, family travel, etc.
4.2 Tourism enterprise's price strategy
There are many kinds of price strategy, including the competition oriented pricing, demand-based pricing, cost oriented pricing method, such as the main method is used in the traditional tourism enterprise competition oriented pricing method. Tourism enterprise's price strategy will directly impact on sales of tourist enterprise itself, so to adopt flexible and varied ways, tourism enterprise transition role, under the personalized demand oriented, by adopting the method of demand-based pricing to develop tourism products prices. With the development of economic and social, to produce the personalized needs of different visitors, including experiential service demand, customized services and personalized services. Tourism enterprises determine the target market, different pricing for different target markets of tourism demand for different tourists oriented pricing strategy. Demand-based pricing strategy include: perceived value pricing method, the auction pricing method, reverse pricing method, starting from the demand of consumers, with different pricing method.
4.3 Travel channel strategy of the enterprise
Tourism enterprises in the traditional sales mode need to explore new sales channels, to perfect the service platform for online, and online services should serve to tourists and visitors experience as the center, optimize the website backstage. Service personnel online help tourists access to information and complete the transaction smoothly, in order to improve the success rate
of web traffic and booking. Tourism enterprises through the network online platform of online services, won the customer's personal information, including email address, you can through the mail sends some travel information in the form of tourists, customization through email marketing, providing personalized service. Tourism enterprises use regional sales, agent marketing, online marketing, distribution channels, and maximize sales. In tourism enterprises micro blog some travel information, etc., at the same time provide consulting service and feedback. In order to increase the coverage of the sales channel, the alliance between the tourism enterprises can take the competition strategy.
4.4 Promotion strategy of tourism enterprises
Network era, the Internet has become the carrier of all kinds of information transmission, the network marketing development in recent years gradually mature, visitors to the network marketing also from the beginning of the doubts and don't accept gradually turned into a trust and love. Network marketing is not just to the tourism enterprise image, but also in building a tourist enterprise brand, the characteristics of wide coverage, thanks to the Internet, creating famous brand. Tourism enterprises need to be innovative, not only the traditional marketing way. Try network marketing should be combined with the development of The Times, from a different Angle to promote tourism enterprises.
旅游企业 7Ps 服务营销策略
旅游业作为服务业的一种模式, 发展服务营销是现代市场营销的一个新领域, 7Ps 是服 务营销组合体系的核心 。 7Ps 服务营销理念可以帮助旅游企业了解游客, 留住游客, 提供更 好的服务 。但大部分旅游企业仍暴露出不了解 7Ps 服务营销策略,没有分析旅游消费者的 需求特点和差异性,不能满足消费者需求等服务水平低下的现象 。而 7Ps 理念可以应用于 产品策略、价格策略、渠道策略 、人员策略、有形展示策略 、服务过程策略 、有形展示等方 面 。旅游企业只有不断的创新和与时俱进做好服务营销,才能在竞争中取胜 。
旅游作为第三产业, 是现代服务业的一种形式, 旅游能够促进当地经济的发展 。 进入 21
世纪,旅游受到世界各国的广泛关注和大力扶持 。然而即使服务业已相当发达的欧美国家 , 仍暴露出某些方面服务水平低下的现象 。 现代旅游企业的发展, 需要以顾客满意度和忠诚度 为核心,以服务顾客为重点,旅游的竞争就是服务的竞争,服务作为旅游企业的窗口,可以 通过旅游企业的服务营销研究, 提升旅游企业的服务水平 。 7Ps 服务营销理论对现代旅游企 业的服务发展具有指导作用和现实意义 。随着信息化 、网络化 、智能化的发展,立足于现代 旅游企业新的发展趋势, 7Ps 服务营销所包含的内容,也不断发展,赋予了新的思想内涵, 7Ps 每一个方面增加了新的内容 。本文据此提出了在新的环境下,基于“ 7Ps ”服务营销策 略的旅游企业在服务营销方面的新发展 。
2 7Ps 服务营销概述
20 世纪 70 年代, 服务业发展的很迅速, 服务营销理论是在传统市场营销理论 4Ps 的 基础上, 1981 年由布姆斯和比特纳增加三个“服务性的 P ”发展而来的。服务营销组合的 七个要素, 即 7Ps 为:产品 (Product) 、 价格 (Price)、 渠道 (Place) 、 促销 (Promotion)、 人员 (People)、 服务过程 (Process) 、有形展示 (Physical Evidence) ,从而形成了服务营销的 7Ps 组合,构成 以 7Ps 为核心的服务营销组合体系 。 7Ps 组合对服务企业的成功至关重要。人员、服务过 程和有形展示三个要素更能体现企业服务营销组合的特点。在当今世界,以 7Ps 服务营销 理念为核心的顾客满意度竞争战略被证明越来越适用于当今竞争日趋激烈的商业环境 。 随着 互联网等技术的发展, 对 7Ps 服务营销理论注入了新的思想, 对基于 7Ps 理论的服务营销 提出了新的要求 。增加了微信营销 、微博营销 、网上营销等营销策略,融合了更多的体验式 服务 、定制化服务 、在线服务等内容。服务营销与旅游企业的有机结合,必然引起旅游企业 的一次重大的变革 。
旅游企业提供的服务差异性小, 服务缺乏创新, 没有在服务方面形成具有竞争力的核心 优势, 很多旅游企业还没有做到为顾客提供个性化的有明显差异性特征的个性定制服务。 服 务营销范围有限,服务营销更多地体现在高端领域,对 VIP 顾客的服务,而针对一般大众 的服务营销理念和态度比较少 。 由于传统的营销观念对企业仍有深刻的影响, 他们对服务营 销的理解还停留在表面, 没有对服务进行系统化的规范和全面管理。 对旅游文化的内涵挖掘 不深、品位不高,服务营销内涵认识不足,旅游的服务营销意识淡薄,服务管理水平低下, 对服务特点认识不清, 服务质量控制不严, 严重存在短期意识和行为。 在实施服务营销过程 中, (完整译文请到百度文库)由于许多企业对服务特点模糊,认识不够,造成服务的效果