Unit 1 Topic 1: Friends
A person can have many friends but only one or two bosom friends. We regard some of our friends as our intimate friends, and others as ordinary friends. Those who are unfaithful to us can’t be called our friends.
好朋友是真正的朋友,而真正的朋友是终生的朋友 。可以说朋友如同自己的左膀右臂 。首先朋友是一个你能依赖,信任和与之交谈的人 。其次朋友是一个能倾听你诉说(烦心事)的人或你能在他面前畅所欲言的人 。更重要的是朋友是一个在你身处于困境时会给你帮助的人 。正如俗话所说:患难之交见真情 。
A good friend is a real friend, and a real friend is a friend for life. A friend is, as it were, a second self. First, a friend is one whom you can count on, trust and talk to. Second, a friend is someone who will listen to you when you talk about your problems or before whom you may think aloud. What is more, a friend is a person who will help you if you are in trouble. Just as the saying goes: A friend in need is a friend indeed
我们应该和(心地)善良 、有同情心、关心他人 、诚实 、体贴的人交朋友,因为他们是真诚的 、可信赖的。因此不要只想靠礼物来赢得朋友。结交朋友的唯一方法是成为对方的朋友 。
We should make friends with those who are kind-hearted, compassionate, caring, honest and thoughtful, because they are sincere and reliable. So don’t try to win a friend with gifts only. The only way to have a friend is to be one.
Topic 2: Friendship
友谊离不开关爱与亲密 。友谊是以热情,信任以及共同的经历为基础的。真正的友谊如同慢慢生长的植物,其价值能经得起时间的考验 。真正的友谊犹如人的身体健康,只有失去了才能知道它的宝贵。
Friendship involves affection and intimacy. Friendship is based on warmth, trust and shared experience. True friendship is a plant of slow growth, the value of which can stand the test of time. True friendship is like health, the value of which is seldom known until it is lost.
生活中没有朋友就像生活在荒芜的海岛上 。生活中没有友谊这日子就没法过。分享快乐与分担痛苦是表达深厚友谊的方法。与朋友分享你的快乐,快乐就会倍增 。向朋友倾诉你的痛苦,痛苦就会减半。
Life without friends is like life on a desert island, and life without friendship is not worth living. Sharing joy and sorrow is the way to show your deep friendship. If you tell your joy to your friend, your joy will double. And if you pour your sorrow to your friend, your sorrow will be reduced by half.
与朋友同甘共苦能增强友谊,使友谊保持活力 。与朋友保持联系能增进友谊,使友谊长存 。记住朋友们生活中的一些重要日子能促进友谊,使友谊记忆犹新 。
Sharing your joy and sorrow with your friends can nurture friendship and keep friendship alive; keeping your friends informed about yourself can improve friendship, and make friendship permanent; remembering important days in your friends’ lives can promote friendship and keep friendship fresh in our minds.
Unit 2 Topic 1: Cultural Differences
People from different countries speak different languages, keep different value systems, and have different ways of looking at things. These differences are generally called cultural differences. Cultural differences are subtle and are often unrecognized or overlooked. It is upsetting to find people who behave differently from us. We may, at first, assume that something is wrong with them.
文化背景会影响人们的思维方式 。首先,文化背景会影响人们对行为举止好与坏的判断。其次,它会影响人们对礼貌与粗鲁的认定 。另外,它还会影响人们对准时与迟到的看法 。例如,不同文化对赞扬的反应是不同的;有些文化认为当别人第一次给你东西时不要接受是比较礼貌的;在东方文化中目光的交流可以表示真诚和专注,而在西方文化中过多的目光交流会使人尴尬。
Cultural backgrounds may influence people’s way of thinking. First, cultural background influences what people consider to be good manners or bad manners. Second, it influences what they consider to be polite or rude. Third, it influences what they consider to be on time or late. (to be continued)
For example, different cultures may have different ways of responding to compliments; some cultures consider it polite not to take something the first time it is offered; eye contact may convey sincerity and attentiveness in some Oriental cultures but too much eye contact may embarrass people in some Western cultures.
Failure to recognize cultural differences may cause many problems. On the one hand, those who are uninformed about cultural differences may have difficulty communicating with their business associates from other cultures. On the other hand, inability to recognize cultural differences can make mutual understanding difficult. (to be continued)
In a word, failure to recognize cultural differences lies at the root of many everyday misunder-standings and irritations among people of different countries or races.
应对文化差异有许多方法。首先,相互了解其它文化的基本特点可以避免无意间得罪他人 。例如我们可以向外国朋友了解他们国家的日常习俗,或耐心地向他们介绍一些自己国家的风俗。其次,不要在公共场合批评来自不同文化的人或使他们感到尴尬。更重要的是我们要尊重来自其它文化的人并与他们平等相待才能达到相互理解 。
There are many ways to deal with cultural differences. First, we can avoid unintentionally offending others by learning the basic characteristics of other cultures. For instance, we may ask our foreign friends about their everyday customs or take time to explain certain common customs of our own culture to them. (to be continued)
Second, don’t not criticize or em barrass people from other cultures in public. What is more, understanding can only be reached if we are willing to treat people from other cultures with respect and as equals.
应对文化差异有许多方法。一方面尊重其它文化有助于我们避免冒犯他人。另一方面了解其它文化可以帮助我们避免误解他人 。除此之外,让外国朋友了解你对时间的概念 、守时的态度也不失为上策 。只要我们注意这几个方面,就能解决由文化差异而产生的问题 。There are many ways to deal with cultural differences. On the one hand, having respect for other cultures can help us avoid offending others. On the other hand, learning about other
cultures can help us avoid misunderstandings. In addition, it is a good policy to let a foreign friend know our expectations with regard to time and punctuality. So long as we pay attention to these aspects, we can solve the problems caused by cultural differences.
Topic 2: Culture Shock
文化冲突是指在接触到与自身文化不同的文明时所产生的迷惑不解和不知所措 。当你遇到另一种文化背景中截然不同的生活方式时,就会经历到文化冲击 。在异国他乡当一些风俗使你措手不及时不要惊慌 。你必须明白生活在不同文化背景之下的人用不同的方法处理日常生活中的许多小事 。无论你打算在一个新地方逗留一周还是一年,事先多了解一些这个地方的情况将会受益匪浅。
“Culture shock” means confusion and disorientation caused by contact with a civilizatio n other than one’s own. You will undergo culture shock when you encounter entirely different ways of life in another culture.
Don’t panic when some customs in a foreign country catch you off guard. You must understand that people living in varied cultures handle many small daily things differently. Whether you plan to stay for a week or for a year in a new place, you’ll benefit a lot from learning about the place before you go.
Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use or the process by which people store and retrieve information. Tom has got a photographic memory. If I remember correctly, once he recited the poem from memory. However, I've got a memory like a sieve (筛子). I've got a bad memory for dates, names, telephone numbers, etc. They are often on the tip of my tongue, but I just can’t place them.
我记东西有许多方法 。首先,不要努力去记住所有的事实,而是把精力集中在你认为更为重要的内容上。其次,记日记、买名信片 、摄影以及制作录像可帮助你回忆过去所发生的事 。此外,将事实与脑海中的形象联想在一起是记住大量信息的一个非常行之有效的方法。如果你太紧张,那么集中注意力是不可能的。尽量放松些,你就会牢记它们。
I have many techniques to remember things. First, don't try to memorize all the facts, but focus your attention on what you consider more important. Second,you can recall past events by keeping a diary, buying postcards, taking photos and making video films.
In addition, associating facts with images is also a very efficient way to memorize a large quantity of information.It is impossible to concentrate if you are tense or nervous. Try to relax and you'll remember things.
提高记忆力有许多方法 。首先,经常记东西会大大增强记忆力 。记忆力犹如肌肉,越用越好,愈是忽视,愈是糟糕。因此,想要激发你的记忆力,得最大限度地运用你的记忆力 。其次,学习新的技能可以增强记忆力 。我觉得以上这学方法特别有效 。
There are ways to improve our memories. First, a good memory is built up by frequent use. Memory is like a muscle-the more it is used, the better it gets. The more it is neglected, the worse it gets. So to stimulate your memory, try to use your memory to the utmost. Second, learning new skills could sharpen your memory. I find the ways mentioned above especially effective.
Everyone has a short-term memory and a long-term memory. A short-term memory is temporary, as it is stored for a very short time in the brain. Short-term memory is sometimes called working memory, which is a more general term for storage of temporary information Unit 6
现代生活离不开金钱 。金钱无论是何种形式都可以买到物品或服务。有钱人可以毫不费力地满足他们的个人需要 。对于有钱人来说接受好的教育,旅游,奢侈的生活和安全感都是触手可及的;而穷人付出很大的努力却未必能得到。
Modern life is built around money. Money, whatever form it takes, is essential for buying goods and services. The rich are supposed to be able to satisfy their personal wishes without difficulty. For the rich, good education, travel, luxury and security are all readily available, while the poor attain these with great difficulty, if at all.
Money in itself is neutral. Money can buy certain comforts and offer some security, but it is not the answer for everything. Money is man's greatest source of joy as well as his greatest source of anxiety.
金钱是可怕的主人,但却是很好的仆人 。财富使人们背负很多责任。而且和其他东西一样,钱也会丢掉 。
Money is a terrible master but an excellent servant. Money and wealth trap people into various obligations. Money, like everything else in life, can be lost.
有钱未必幸福 。金钱可以买到食物,但不能买到胃口;可以买到药品,但不能买到健康。有钱人认为生命中最重要的是爱,而贫穷的人却认为是金钱。金钱不是生活的终点,而只是生活的工具 。
Money does not ensure / guarantee happiness. Money brings you food, but not appetite; medicine, but not health. Those who have some means think that the most important thing in life is love. The poor know that it is money. Riches are not an end of life, but an instrument of life.
幸福不是财富的聚积 。仅仅拥有财富或物质上的舒适并不意味着幸福。因为幸福不是取决于你拥有的财富 。快乐是一种满足,无论是富有还是贫穷的人都可以是快乐的人。所谓知足长乐
Happiness is not attained by accumulating / amassing wealth. We will be disappointed if we count / rely on wealth or physical comforts alone for happiness, because
happiness does not depend on the amount of money you have. A happy man is one who is content, whether he is rich or poor. The greatest wealth is contentment with a little.
Why do some young people choose to smoke? For one thing, they may have picked up smoking out of curiosity / because of peer pressure / because they thought it was cool; for another, the nicotine in tobacco can stimulate / energize the smokers for a brief period of time.
Smoking is harmful / damaging to one’s health. Smoking is known as a fatal cause of lung cancer. You run a greater risk if you smoke to excess. Moreover, smoking is also found to be related to / connected with / associated with / linked to other types of cancer. Studies show that cigarette smokers are much more likely to die from a heart attack than nonsmokers. So smoking is not only a waste of money but is also a danger to one’s health.
Nonsmokers in many countries are appealing for the prohibition of smoking in public places. Thanks to the efforts of anti-smoking groups, manufacturers are forced to put a warning that “Smoking is harmful to your health.” on every packet of cigarettes. I think all public places should at least create a smoke-free area for non-smokers.
战争是人类的悲剧。由于战争,上百万人死去,无数家庭解体。战争的爆发常常是由于种族或宗教冲突/领土或经济争端/意识形态的差异 。历史上大多数战争的进行都是为了保护超级大国的经济利益 。
War is a human tragedy. Millions of people die and families fall apart as a result of war. War breaks out because of ethnic or religious conflicts/territorial or economic disputes/ideological difference. Throughout the history, most wars have been waged to protect the economic interests of superpower
战争是人类悲剧 。它耗费金钱﹑资源和人的生命 。
在战争中,每个人都是输家 。它给双方都造成了痛苦 。在人类历史上,战争一直都是痛苦和苦难的最大根源 。在和平时期,儿子埋葬父亲,但是战争违反自然秩序,使得父亲要埋葬儿子 。
War is human tragedy. It is costly in money, resources and human lives. In war, everyone loses. War creates suffering for both sides. Throughout history, war has always been the greatest source of pain and suffering. In peacetime sons bury fathers, but war violates the order of nature and fathers bury sons
Do you think war can be avoided?
当然可以 。战争带来了巨大的苦难,造成了巨大的损失。以暴还暴只会增加暴力 。应该通过和平的方式来解决冲突 。使用武力对任何问题都是糟糕的解决方法 。如果我们热爱和平,并尽力通过谈话和谈判来解决任何争端,我们就一定能避免战争 。
Of course we can. War creates huge suffering and causes great damage. Returning violence for violence multiplies violence. Conflicts should be resolved through peaceful means. The use of force is a poor solution to any problem. If we love peace and try to resolve any dispute through talk and negotiation, we are sure that we can avoid the war.
不,我认为很难避免战争 。战争一直是人类历史的一部分 。在完全消除战争之前还有很长的路要走 。只要有国家想通过使用武力来支配其他国家,我们就无法消除战争。此外,如果一个国家受到袭击或侵略,它有权反击。
No. I think it is very difficult to avoid war. War has always been a part of human history. There’s a long way to go before we can totally eliminate it. We will never be able to get rid of war as long as there are countries that want to dominate other countries through the use of force. Besides, if a country is attacked/invaded, it has the right to fight/strike back.
上瘾是指对毒品出现依赖,或是指因为无法控制自己而渴望做某事 。一个人会因吸烟 、吸毒或是上网而成瘾 。有些人吸毒是因为一方面毒品能让他们感觉好,暂时忘记他们的问题;另一方面吸毒可以让他们减轻压力。至于年轻人,有些人出于好奇而吸毒有些人是因为同龄人的压力而吸毒。
An addiction is the condition of being dependent on a drug or crave to do something because one cannot stop doing it.One can be addicted to cigarette smoking,drugs and the Internet. On the one hand, some people take drugs to feel good and forget their problems temporarily;on the other hand, some people hope to reduce stress by taking drugs.As to the youth, some of them may try drugs out of curiosity,others may be tempted to use drugs because of peer pressure
毒品有很强的吸引力 。一旦尝试有可能头几次使用以后就会上瘾有人甚至一次就上瘾。滥用毒品会导致生理 、心理上对毒品的依赖 。一旦生理依赖性变强,就需要加大剂量以达到想要的效果。吸毒上瘾经常导致严重的生理紊乱有时甚至会导致死亡 。吸毒上瘾者往往通过暴力和犯罪以及其他可以采用的一切手段搞到钱去购买毒品 。青少年行为不良与年轻人吸毒上瘾有紧密地联系 。吸毒不仅伤害吸毒者本人,而且伤害他们所爱的人,他们的家人以及全社会 。
Drugs have strong addictive power. Those who try may get addicted within the first few uses. Some people even get addicted from the very first use. Drug abuse can cause physical and psychological dependence on the drug. Once physical dependence has developed, one needs to increase doses to achieve the desired effects. Drug addiction often leads to serious health disorders and sometimes to death.A drug addict will resort to crime and violence or any means to get money to buy drugs
Drug addiction among young people is closely associated with juvenile delinquency. Drug abuse harms not just the abusers, but also their loved ones, their family and society at large. 人们往往认为吸毒者道德败坏/有性格缺陷/缺少明智的判断 。许多吸毒者丢了工作/靠偷盗获得的钱财购买毒品/忍受着因戒毒带来的种种痛苦的折磨 。吸毒者受到以前的朋友甚至家人的躲避/回避/抵制/看不起 。
people tend to characterize those who take drugs either as morally weak or having character flaw or lacking sound judgment.Some drug addicts lose their jobs,some resort to stealing to get money to buy drugs,others suffer from terrible withdrawal symptoms.Drug addicts are shunned/avoided/rejected/held in contempt by former friends and even family members.
毒品问题的根源在于从社会上可以获得致幻毒品。为了抵制吸毒,我们必须处理供需两方面的问题 。只要有人需要毒品,就会有人为他们提供毒品。仅仅靠惩罚不能很有效地帮助吸毒者戒毒或防止吸毒者犯罪 。为了防止滥用毒品,我们要开展毒品教育计划,一方面告诉年轻人吸毒带来的危害;另一方面强化法律手段防止吸毒,更加努力地制裁毒品走私 。同时,我们要建立更多的戒毒中心,帮助吸毒者戒除毒瘾。当人们充分认识到吸毒的危害,当我们消除了毒品走私,也就是当我们彻底消除了非法的毒品供应,滥用毒品的现象就会消失 。
The root of the drug problem is the availability of narcotics in society. To fight drug abuse, we need to deal with both the supply and demand sides of the problem. As long as there is someone who wants a drug, there is someone else there to supply it. While Punishment alone is not an effective way to help drug users quit drugs or stop them from committing crimes
In order to prevent drug abuse, on the one hand ,we can launch drug education programs to teach young people about the risks involved;on the other hand ,we can toughen laws to prevent drug offenses. In addition , we should make greater efforts to crack down on drug trafficking. Meanwhile,we can set up more rehabilitation centers to help those who are addicted to quit drugs
Drug abuse will disappear when people become fully aware of the danger of doing drugs, when we wipe out drug trafficking, that is to say when there is a complete elimination of an illegal drug supply.。